The Afghan Girls Robotics Team made headlines in 2017 when they came to Washington for an international competition just a few blocks from the White House.
Most members of the team were born after the Taliban were ousted from power in 2001, symbolizing a new Afghanistan where girls were free to go to school and women were getting at least some opportunities that had been long denied.
But with the Taliban back, the future of these girls — some of them now young women — has turned precarious.
Kimberly Motley, a U.S. lawyer who has represented them for years, says she's in close touch with the girls and their families. But she did not want to publicly discuss details because she fear for the safety of those still inside Afghanistan.
"We're hopeful that they're safe. But we're really concerned with the reports that we're seeing," Motley said in an interview from Charlotte, N.C.
Roya Mahboob, an Afghan tech entrepreneur who helped form the team, confirmed to NPR that some of the girls have now arrived in Qatar, while other still remain in Afghanistan.
The team was formed by about a dozen teenage girls in the western city of Herat in 2017 with the support form Mahboob, who heads the Digital Citizen Fund, which runs STEM classes for girls. The team has grown to more than 20.
The girls applied to come to the Washington competition that included teams from more than 160 countries. But they could not initially obtain U.S. visas until their plight became public and then-president Donald Trump intervened.
Six team members arrived just in time to take part, attracting a swarm of media attention, finishing 114th out of 163 teams, and taking home a "courageous achievement" award.
"That award was a result of our hard work. And it's made us work even harder," said Somaya Farooqi, team captain of the robotics team in an interview with NPR last year.
They returned to a hero's welcome in Afghanistan, though the brutal reality of Afghanistan's war soon intervened. Just two weeks after the competition, the father of one girl on the team was killed in a bomb blast at a mosque that claimed more than 30 lives.
Progress for women and girls may reverse
Motley has been working in Afghanistan since 2008, often representing Afghan women and handling human rights cases.
She said the Biden administration had to know that the American withdrawal could have a damaging impact on Afghan girls and women.
"We went there and we sold them this dream of democracy and freedom. Because of that, there were millions and millions of little girls that were educated," said Motley. "But now we're leaving and everyone knew that this day would come."
She's very upset by the way President Biden talked about the Afghan military not putting up a fight. She said this ignored the battle Afghan women have been waging.
"The girls that were going to school for the last 20 years, that's fighting. The women that are doctors, lawyers, judges, running for politics, the Afghan girls robotics team, that's fighting," she said. "So I'm sorry that my girls weren't picking up AK-47s. But they were fighting, and we have a duty to protect them."
When COVID-19 hit last year, Afghanistan was extremely vulnerable. To cite just one example, the impoverished country had a small number of ventilators, which can cost tens of thousands of dollars.
But the robotics team, also known as the Afghan Dreamers, reached out to MIT, which helped come up with a design to build ventilators from scratch. The girls relied on used parts from Toyota Corollas and put together a prototype that cost just a few hundred dollars to make.
They built it amid the pandemic and while fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. In an interview with NPR last year, Farooqi said, "even if it saves just one patient's life, I'll be happy."
Mahboob, who oversees and funds the girls, told NPR that the ventilator project brought the country great pride. "I'm really proud of these young girls – [who are] feeling that they have to help their community. It's amazing and hopeful for the future of Afghanistan."
Skepticism of Taliban promises
Meanwhile, Motley said doesn't trust the Taliban promise to respect women's rights. When the group ruled Afghanistan from 1996-2001, its draconian rules were especially harsh on women.
Girls were barred from school and women from the workplace. Women were only allowed in public when escorted by a male relative, and had to remain fully covered, peering out through a mesh face covering.
Motley said she's getting desperate, anguished phone calls every day, and many women are already feeling squeezed, even though the Taliban have not established formal policies.
"I'm talking to a lot of people on the ground who are telling me how girls are being told at colleges, don't come back to school. Women are at their jobs, are saying they're being told, don't come back to work," Motley said.
She finds the images from Kabul very telling. She said the crowds on the streets and at the airport are made up almost exclusively of men. There were many more women visible just a few days ago, before the Taliban took control, she added.
The U.S., the European Union and 20 other nations issued a joint statement Wednesday saying, "We are deeply worried about Afghan women and girls, their rights to education, work and freedom of movement. We call on those in positions of power and authority across Afghanistan to guarantee their protection."
Greg Myre is an NPR national security correspondent. Follow him @gregmyre1.
A MARTINEZ, HOST:
In 2017, the Afghan girls robotics team made headlines when they came to Washington for an international competition. They represented a new Afghanistan, one where girls and women were getting opportunities long denied. Today, these girls face a precarious future with the Taliban again in charge of their homeland. NPR's Greg Myre met the robotics team in Washington four years ago, and he's spoken with their American lawyer who's trying to ensure their safety. Greg, what's the situation for these girls right now? Are they safe?
GREG MYRE, BYLINE: Well, I've been in touch with their lawyer, who's represented them for years. Her name is Kim Motley. And she's in North Carolina, but she's been in close contact with the girls, and some are young women now. She didn't want to talk about specifics because it's very fluid and she's very worried about their safety. And now we've just seen a report this morning in The New York Times that at least some of the girls have made it out on a flight from Kabul to Qatar, while others are still inside the country.
MARTINEZ: OK, so at least a little bit of good news. Remind us, though, Greg, how this team came to be.
MYRE: They - this was formed by teenage girls in the western Afghan city of Herat who are interested in science and computers and robotics. And so four years ago, they wanted to take part in this big robotics competition in Washington just a couple blocks from the White House. Six of the girls came. They performed very well, made a big splash. And these are all girls born after the Taliban were tossed out in 2001, and they really showed how much the country had changed.
MARTINEZ: So when they got to Washington, you got to spend some time with them. How did that happen?
MYRE: Well, my wife and I have reported from Afghanistan for a long time. We knew the Afghan ambassador in Washington. He said these girls really wanted to meet American teenage girls. Well, we have two of them. So we invited the Afghan girls over for dinner, and our girls invited their friends, and it was kind of like a slumber party. They sat around, and there was lots of giggling. They all agreed Harry Styles was very cute, and they sang and danced to Taylor Swift. The Afghans loved our dog, but it completely baffled them that it was allowed in the house. They said this would never have happened in Herat. Dogs are considered unhygienic.
MARTINEZ: Your daughters were representing America there.
MARTINEZ: So fast-forward to today, what's their lawyer saying about these gut-wrenching scenes out of Afghanistan?
MYRE: Well, Kim Motley says the U.S. had to know that this withdrawal could mean something bad for women there.
KIM MOTLEY: We put them in this situation. We went there and we sold them this dream of democracy and freedom. And I think because of that, there were millions and millions of little girls that were educated. But now we're leaving, and everyone knew that this day would come.
MYRE: And she's very upset the way President Biden talked about the Afghan military not fighting. She said this ignores the battle that Afghan women have been waging.
MOTLEY: I'm sorry. The girls that were going to school for the last 20 years - that's fighting. The women that are doctors, lawyers, judges, running for politics, you know, the Afghan girls robotics team - that's fighting. So I'm sorry that my girls weren't picking up AK-47s, but they were fighting, and we have a duty to protect them.
MYRE: And Motley says she's getting desperate, anguished phone calls daily from women in Afghanistan who are fearful of going back to work or going to school.
MARTINEZ: That's NPR's Greg Myre. Greg, thanks a lot.
MYRE: My pleasure. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.